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When you imagine dinosaurs battling it out, the first match-up that comes to mind is Triceratops vs. T. rex. In our collective imagination they are fighting eternally. It's the clash of the titans. But did these battles actually take place?

Yes. Yes they did. We have the fossil to prove it, and for the first time ever, the public will be able to take a look.

The fossil -- nicknamed "Dueling Dinosaurs" -- was initially discovered in 2006, but until now has only been seen by a select few. It shows a T. rex and a Triceratops in mid-battle, literally fighting to the death. The pair are preserved in a fossil going on display for the first time at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, The Charlotte Observer reported on Nov. 17.

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Just after sunset on the evening of Dec. 21, Jupiter and Saturn will appear closer together in Earth's night sky than they have been since the Middle Ages, offering people the world over a celestial treat to ring in the winter solstice.

"Alignments between these two planets are rather rare, occurring once every 20 years or so, but this conjunction is exceptionally rare because of how close the planets will appear to one another," said Rice University astronomer Patrick Hartigan. "You'd have to go all the way back to just before dawn on March 4, 1226, to see a closer alignment between these objects visible in the night sky."

Jupiter and Saturn have been approaching one another in Earth's sky since the summer. From Dec. 16-25, the two will be separated by less than the diameter of a full moon.

"On the evening of closest approach on Dec 21 they will look like a double planet, separated by only 1/5th the diameter of the full moon," said Hartigan, a professor of physics and astronomy. "For most telescope viewers, each planet and several of their largest moons will be visible in the same field of view that evening."

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In August 2019, Iceland held a funeral for the Okjökull Glacier, the first Icelandic glacier lost to climate change. The community commemorated the event with a plaque in recognition of this irreversible change and the grave impacts it represents. Globally, glacier melt rates have nearly doubled in the last five years, with an average loss of 832 mmw.e. (millimeters water equivalent) in 2015, increasing to 1,243 mmw.e. in 2020 (WGMS). This high rate of loss decreases glacial stores of freshwater and changes the structure of the surrounding ecosystem.

In the last 10 years, warming in the Arctic has outpaced projections so rapidly that scientists are now suggesting that the poles are warming four times faster than the rest of the globe. This has led to glacier melt and permafrost thaw levels that weren’t forecast to happen until 2050 or later. In Siberia and northern Canada, this abrupt thaw has created sunken landforms, known as thermokarst, where the oldest and deepest permafrost is exposed to the warm air for the first time in hundreds or even thousands of years.

As the global climate continues to warm, many questions remain about the periglacial environment. Among them: as water infiltration increases, will permafrost thaw more rapidly? And, if so, what long-frozen organisms might “wake up”?

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The fountain of youth may be made of air, not water.

Scientists say they’ve successfully reversed the aging process of elderly people through “oxygen therapy” in a first-of-its-kind study.

Researchers from Tel Aviv University used hyperbaric oxygen chambers to target specific cells and DNA linked to shorter lifespans — and found the “Holy Grail” of staying young, according to a press release about the discovery.

During the study, researchers investigated whether the therapy — which involves breathing pure oxygen in a pressurized environment — could reverse the effects of aging in 35 people over age 64, according to the study, which was published Wednesday in the journal Aging.

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Look up at the night sky and, if you're away from city lights, you'll see stars. The space between those bright points of light is, of course, filled with inky blackness.

Some astronomers have wondered about that all that dark space--about how dark it really is.

"Is space truly black?" says Tod Lauer, an astronomer with the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Arizona. He says if you could look at the night sky without stars, galaxies, and everything else known to give off visible light, "does the universe itself put out a glow?"

It's a tough question that astronomers have tried to answer for decades. Now, Lauer and other researchers with NASA's New Horizons space mission say they've finally been able to do it, using a spacecraft that's travelling far beyond the dwarf planet Pluto. The group has posted their work online, and it will soon appear in the Astrophysical Journal.

New Horizons was originally designed to explore Pluto, but after whizzing past the dwarf planet in 2015, the intrepid spacecraft just kept going. It's now more than four billion miles from home—nearly 50 times farther away from the Sun than the Earth is.

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In a Facebook post Tuesday, the Ravensbeard Wildlife Center said the bird was rescued after the 75-foot Norway spruce was cut down Thursday in Oneonta, roughly 80 miles southwest of Albany and around 170 miles north of its final stop in New York City.

A worker who helped transport and secure the tree discovered the owl and his wife called the center, the post said.

“He’s got the baby owl in a box tucked in for the long ride,” the woman said, according to the post.

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Pfizer Inc and BioNTech could secure emergency U.S. and European authorization for their COVID-19 vaccine next month after final trial results showed it had a 95% success rate and no serious side effects, the drugmakers said on Wednesday.

The vaccine's efficacy was found to be consistent across different ages and ethnicities - a promising sign given the disease has disproportionately hurt the elderly and certain groups including Black people.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration could grant emergency-use by the middle of December, BioNTech Chief Executive Ugur Sahin told Reuters TV. Conditional approval in the European Union could be secured in the second half of December, he added.

"If all goes well I could imagine that we gain approval in the second half of December and start deliveries before Christmas, but really only if all goes positively," he said.

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For almost a century, astronomers have understood that the Universe is in a state of expansion. Since the 1990s, they have come to understand that as of 4 billion years ago, the rate of expansion has been speeding up.

As this progresses, and the galaxy clusters and filaments of the Universe move farther apart, scientists theorize that the mean temperature of the Universe will gradually decline.

But according to new research led by the Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP) at Ohio State University, it appears that the Universe is actually getting hotter as time goes on.

After probing the thermal history of the Universe over the last 10 billion years, the team concluded that the mean temperature of cosmic gas has increased more than 10 times and reached about 2.2 million K (~2.2 °C; 4 million °F) today.

The study that describes their findings, "The Cosmic Thermal History Probed by Sunyaev–Zeldovich Effect Tomography", recently appeared in The Astrophysical Journal.

The study was led by Yi-Kuan Chiang, a research fellow at the CCAP, and included members from the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), The Johns Hopkins University, and the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics.

For the sake of their study, the the team examined thermal data on the Large-Scale Structure (LSS) of the Universe. This refers to patterns of galaxies and matter on the largest of cosmic scales, which is the result of the gravitational collapse of dark matter and gas.

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An astrophysicist at the University of Bologna and a neurosurgeon at the University of Verona compared the network of neuronal cells in the human brain with the cosmic network of galaxies... and surprising similarities emerged.

In their paper published in Frontiers in Physics, Franco Vazza (astrophysicist at the University of Bologna) and Alberto Feletti (neurosurgeon at the University of Verona) investigated the similarities between two of the most challenging and complex systems in nature: the cosmic network of galaxies and the network of neuronal cells in the human brain.

Despite the substantial difference in scale between the two networks (more than 27 orders of magnitude), their quantitative analysis, which sits at the crossroads of cosmology and neurosurgery, suggests that diverse physical processes can build structures characterized by similar levels of complexity and self-organization.

The human brain functions thanks to its wide neuronal network that is deemed to contain approximately 69 billion neurons. On the other hand, the observable universe is composed of a cosmic web of at least 100 billion galaxies. Within both systems, only 30% of their masses are composed of galaxies and neurons. Within both systems, galaxies and neurons arrange themselves in long filaments or nodes between the filaments. Finally, within both systems, 70% of the distribution of mass or energy is composed of components playing an apparently passive role: water in the brain and dark energy in the observable Universe.

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Mouthwash is able to kill COVID-19 within 30 seconds of exposure to it in a laboratory, a scientific study has found.

The preliminary findings, which are yet to be peer reviewed, come ahead of a clinical trial investigating whether over-the-counter mouthwash can reduce the levels of coronavirus in a patient's saliva.

The research, which was conducted at Cardiff University, found that mouthwashes containing 0.07% of the ingredient cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) showed "promising signs" of reducing COVID-19.

These findings support another recently published study which identified that CPC-based mouthwashes are effective in reducing the viral load of coronavirus.

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'Tis the season for gratitude, giving, and lots and lots of turkey. However, amid the coronavirus pandemic, your Thanksgiving festivities might look a bit different. Maybe instead of a packed house, you're only entertaining your immediate family members (ya know, the ones you've been cooped up with for the past nine months). Or, maybe you'll be spending the holiday completely alone. Whatever the case, there are ways to make your Thanksgiving feel festive and special, even while social distancing.

Ahead, we've found the best quarantine Thanksgiving ideas you can do at home. From watching the Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade (yes, it's still happening this year) to making a creative fall craft, these ideas will help you celebrate in style. You might even find that taking the time to reimagine Thanksgiving could lead to new traditions that last for years to come. Need more ideas on how to celebrate the holiday? These are our favorite things to do on Thanksgiving (besides eat mashed potatoes, gravy, and all the desserts, that is!).

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Chinese researchers have found some puzzling organic stuff in deep-sea rock that may shed new light on the origins of life.

They analysed the carbon-rich, somewhat fatty compounds to look for what life forms were involved in their formation, or a possible hint of an oil reserve.

They found none, not even a trace of bacteria. After examining all possible explanations, the researchers proposed that the organic materials could have come from nowhere and were created by the rock itself.

The unusual rock, retrieved from 6,400 metres (21,000 feet) under the Pacific Ocean, may “generate the first building blocks for the origin of life”, said the team, led by Professor Peng Xiaotong of the Institute of Deep Sea Science and Engineering, in a paper published in journal Geology this month.

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