Jupiter

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The Juno spacecraft has gotten a private radio show from Jupiter's closest moon, the highly volcanic Io.

NASA's Juno spacecraft is "listening" in on radio emissions from Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, allowing researchers to discover what triggers the strange radio waves.

Of all the planets in our solar system, Jupiter has the largest and most powerful magnetic field, which extends so far that some of the planet's moons orbit within it. Because Io is closest to the planet, the moon is "caught in a gravitational tug-of-war" between Jupiter and two other large moons, according to NASA. These opposing pulls cause massive internal heat, which has led to hundreds of volcanic eruptions across the moon's surface.

The volcanos release 1 ton of gasses and particles per second into space, NASA said in a statement. Some of this material splits into electrically charged ions and electrons that then rain down onto Jupiter through the planet's magnetic field. Electrons caught in the magnetic field are accelerated toward Jupiter's poles and, along the way, generate a phenomenon scientists call decameter radio waves (also known as decametric radio emissions, or DAM).

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The Jupiter moon Europa may be an even more promising abode for life than scientists had thought.

A recent study suggests that active volcanoes may lurk on the seabed of the 1,940-mile-wide (3,120 kilometers) Europa, which harbors a huge ocean of salty water beneath its icy shell.

Such volcanoes could power deep-sea hydrothermal systems, environments rich in chemical energy that potential Europa lifeforms could exploit, researchers said.

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The Hubble Space Telescope has peered out into the cosmos and spotted its youngest exoplanet yet, a giant world 379 light-years from Earth that's still growing.

Planets form as dust and gas, swirling around in a circumstellar disk surrounding their star, collides and condenses to slowly become a "ball." Far out in the constellation Centaurus, Hubble has spotted a planet still coming together. The young gas giant exoplanet, designated PDS 70b, is "just" 5 million years old, Hubble scientists said. While the planet is still gathering mass, pulling it from the young star it orbits, it's already huge — roughly the size of Jupiter.

In a new study, scientists took advantage of this unique opportunity to study a planet in its formative years like PDS 70b with Hubble's telescope eye.

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Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), in which the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a partner, a team of astronomers has directly measured winds in Jupiter's middle atmosphere for the first time. By analyzing the aftermath of a comet collision from the 1990s, the researchers have revealed incredibly powerful winds, with speeds of up to 1450 kilometers an hour, near Jupiter's poles. They could represent what the team have described as a "unique meteorological beast in our solar system."

Jupiter is famous for its distinctive red and white bands, swirling clouds of moving gas that astronomers traditionally use to track winds in Jupiter's lower atmosphere. Astronomers have also seen, near Jupiter's poles, the vivid glows known as aurorae, which appear to be associated with strong winds in the planet's upper atmosphere. But until now, researchers had never been able to directly measure wind patterns in between these two atmospheric layers, in the stratosphere.

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